Most Popular Python Interview Questions
Python developers are always in high demand, and if you want to work as a Python coder at a top tech firm, you must answer the tricky Python interview questions. Python is a popular Object-Oriented Programming language among coders and developers. Top tech firms value Python developers due to Python’s simplicity and general-purpose programming ability across most OS platforms.
Python interview questions from top FAANG+ companies are based on theoretical and practical knowledge. If you're preparing for a technical interview and have decided to use Python as your programming language, these Python interview questions and answers will help you understand what to expect.
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Let’s go ahead and look at these common Python interview questions and answers for freshers and experienced developers.
Here’s what we’ll cover in this article:
- Top Python Interview Questions and Answers
- Python Coding Interview Questions
- How to Prepare for Your Upcoming Python Interview
- FAQs on Python Interview Questions
Top Python Interview Questions and Answers
This section will look at some popular Python interview questions asked at software engineer interviews.
Q1. What are some advantages of using Python?
Python is a general-purpose programming language that can build any application, tool, or interface. With the right set of libraries and tools, you can use Python to write high-level code for complex software programs and applications.
More so, Python is the preferred language for Rapid Application Development amongst developers as it offers an extensive set of data structures.
Q2. What do you understand by type-checking in Python?
Python is essentially a strongly-typed, interpreted programming language that doesn’t allow type coercion or implicit data-type conversions. There are fundamentally two stages during which type-checking is done:
Before execution - data types are checked before execution. This is known as Static type-checking.
After execution - data types are checked during execution. This is known as Dynamic type-checking.
In Python, as the data types are checked during execution, it is a dynamically-typed programming language.
Q3.What do you understand by an interpreted language?
Python is an interpreted language. These languages execute code statements line-by-line. In the case of interpreted programming languages, programs run directly from the source code and don’t require a compilation step before execution.
Q4. What do you understand about Scope in Python?
This is one of the most common Python programming interview questions asked at software developer interviews. A scope in Python is essentially a block of code in which an object is relevant. Namespaces in Python have pre-defined scopes to ensure that objects remain relevant during execution and can be freely used without prefixes.
Q5. How do you generate random numbers in Python?
This again is an important Python interview question for beginners. In Python, random numbers are generated using the Random module. The method used is:
Q6. What are generators in Python?
Generators in Python are functions used to return an iterable set of user-defined data types.
Q7. How do you remove value elements in an array in Python?
Values or elements in an array can be removed using the pop() or remove() functions. The pop() function returns the values or elements that have been deleted, whereas the remove() function does not return any values.
Q8. What are the different types of Scopes in Python?
The different types of Scopes in Python include:
- Local Scope
- Global Scope
- Module-level Scope and
- Outermost Scope
Q9. What are lists in Python?
Lists are fundamentally sequenced data types in Python used to store a collection of objects. Lists in Python are represented using square brackets.
Q10. What are Tuples in Python?
Tuples are sequence data types used to store a collection of items (objects). In Tuples, objects are represented using parentheses.
The fundamental difference between Lists and Tuples is that Lists are collections of mutable objects while Tuples are a collection of immutable objects.
Q11. What is the “Pass” feature in Python?
The Pass feature represents a null or void operation in Python. The keyword fills up empty code blocks that can execute during runtime. It is primarily used when code in these blocks hasn’t been written yet. The program could run into errors while executing code without the “pass” keyword.
Q12. What is a Class in Python?
A Class in Python is a code template used to create and define an object. It is a fundamental block of code that defines the behavior and attributes of objects and functions.
Q13. Define and Object in Python
An Object in Python is a user-defined data type or instance of a class. It is an entity that exhibits behavior and state, defined by the Class that it is part of.
Q14. Mention the most widely-used built-in data types in Python?
The standard built-in data types in Python include:
- None Type
- Numeric Types
- Mapping Types
- Sequence Types
- Callable Types
- Set Types
Q15. What are packages and modulus in Python?
Packages and modules are two key features that enable modular programming. Packages in Python allow hierarchical and organized structuring of module namespaces through dot notations. Packages in Python help to avoid conflicts between module names.
Modules are files in Python that have the .py extension. Modules can contain various variables, classes, objects, and functions. The contents within modules can be initialized through the “import” statement.
Q16. What do you understand about Global, Private and Public attributes in the Python language?
Global attribute - Any variable declared a global variable in a program is public and is available outside the class. Global variables are defined in Python using the global keyword.
Protected attribute - variables that are protected are usually confined to the class, although they can be accessed from outside the class through select functions. Protected variables can only be accessed by child classes which are subsets of parent classes.
Q17. What is abstraction in Python?
Abstraction is a feature through which only the required details are shown, while the implementation details are hidden. For instance, if the members of a class are public, they are visible and accessible by external methods and functions; but if the members are private, they cannot be called by external methods.
Q18. What is the difference between .pyc and .py files in Python?
.pyc files in Python are created when a block of code is imported from a different source. These files essentially contain bytecodes of Python files. On the other hand, .py files are source code files.
Q19. What do you understand by Slicing in Python?
This is another crucial Python interview question asked in technical interviews at top companies. Slicing in Python is primarily used to access some parts of sequences such as strings, tuples, or lists.
Q20. What are Literals in Python?
Literals in Python are used to represent fixed values for data types that are primitive. There are a total of 5 Literal types in Python:
- String Literals come into the picture while assigning text to a variable, either single or double-quotes. Multiline literals can also be created by assigning text in triple quotes.
- Numeric literals are values that can be integers, floating-point numbers, or complex numbers.
- Character literals are created by assigning a single character - usually an alphabet - in double-quotes.
- Boolean literals are used to indicate if a value is either “true” or “false.”
- Literal collections are basically of 4 types - tuple literals, dictionary literals, set literals, and special literals.
Q21. How do you combine dataframes in Python?
In Python, dataframes can be combined using the following ways:
- By joining - this process involves combining dataframes into a single column called “key.”
- Concatenating them by stacking the dataframes vertically
- Concatenating them by stacking the dataframes horizontally.
The contact() function is used to concatenate two dataframes.
Q22. What is the process of managing memory in Python?
This is one of the most important Python interview questions asked in technical interviews. In Python, memory is managed through the Private Heap Space. Data structures and objects are located in private heaps. Developers usually don’t have access to private heaps. They are managed by Python memory managers. Python’s built-in garbage collector automatically recycles unused memory and makes it available to heap spaces.
Q23. What do you understand about PythonPath?
The PythonPath is an environment variable used to identify imported modules in multiple directories. The variable is used by interpreters when a module is imported to identify which module to load.
Q24. What are some built-in modules in Python?
Python modules are an essential concept around which you can expect tons of Python interview questions based on theory and problem-solving. Modules are files that contain Python code. Commonly used built-in modules in Python include:
- Data time
Q25. What do you understand about type conversion in Python? What are some common functions to perform type conversions in Python?
Type conversion in Python is used to convert one datatype to another. Some common type conversion functions include:
- float() - converts a given data type into floating-type
- int() - converts a given data type into integer
- set () - converts a data type and returns it in the form of a set
- dict() - converts a tuple of a given value or order into the dictionary type
- str() - converts a given integer into a string
Q26. What are functions in Python? Which keyword is used to define functions in Python?
This is one of the most common Python interview questions asked in technical interviews. Functions are blocks of code that are executed when called. The keyword “def” is used to define functions in Python.
Q27. What is _init_ in Python?
_init_ in Python is a constructor that is automatically called to allocate memory when a new object is created. All classes in Python have the _init_ function.
Q28. What is the lambda function in Python?
The lambda function in Python is a function that can have only one statement but multiple parameters. The lambda function is commonly known as the anonymous function.
Q29. Does Python allow Multithreading?
Python has a multithreading package and allows multithreading through the Global Interpreter Lock construct. The construct allows only one thread to execute at one time and quickly moves onto the next thread for execution. The process is so quick that it may seem like multiple threads are executing simultaneously. Allowing threads to execute through this method is the most efficient way to run code.
Q30. Name some commonly-used libraries in Python
Libraries are essentially a collection of packages. Some popular Python libraries are Pandas, Matplotlib, Numpy, and Scikit-learn.
Q31. What do you understand about polymorphism in Python?
Polymorphism is a feature that allows methods to have multiple functionalities with the same name. For instance, if a parent class contains a method ABC, the child class can contain the same method with its own unique set of variables and functions.
Q32. Is multiple inheritance a feature supported by the Python language?
Multiple inheritance is a feature where a particular class can be derived from more than one parent class. Unlike Java, Python supports multiple inheritance.
These Python interview questions around general Python theory will help you prepare for your upcoming technical interview.
Python Coding Interview Questions for Technical Interviews
Many developers choose Python as their programming language for technical interviews. Using Python to solve problems on core-data structures and algorithms is an excellent choice, as the language enables you to perform a wide range of functions.
In this section, we’ll look at some sample Python coding interview questions asked at FAANG+ interviews.
Before that, here are the topics that are important from the perspective of the interview:
- Arrays, strings, and linked lists
- Sorting algorithms — quicksort, merge sort, heap sort, etc.
- Hash tables and queues
- Trees and graphs
- Graph algorithms, including greedy algorithms
- Dynamic programming
Let’s look at some sample Python coding interview questions asked in FAANG+ interviews:
- You are given a linked list “L,” Write a program function to pick a random node from the linked list.
- Write a code to convert a given binary tree to a Doubly Linked List (DLL) in place. The left and right pointers in the nodes are to be used as previous and next pointers, respectively, in the converted DLL.
- Write a code to count the leaves in a given binary search tree BT.
- Write a program function to implement the serialize and deserialize functions for a given binary search tree.
- Given an array of integers, write a program to return the next greater element for each element in the array. The array comprises all distinct numbers. If a greater element doesn’t exist to the right of a given element, the value returned in that position should be -1.
- You are given a positive array with n positive integers. Write a program to determine the inversion count of the array.
- You are given a binary tree T. Write a program to print the right view of the tree.
- You’re given a binary tree T. Write a code to print the height of the binary tree.
- For a given binary tree, write a program to connect the nodes of the binary tree that are at the same level.
- Two node values are given for a binary search tree with unique values. Write a program to find the lowest common ancestors of the two nodes.
How to Prepare for Your Upcoming Python Interview
If you’re looking for some hands-on Python interview preparation tips, we’ve got them lined up for you. Go through the below pointers to nail your technical interview.
- Start your prep early - Begin your prep at least 4-5 weeks before your interview. This will help you cover all the essential programming concepts in sufficient detail.
- Practice problem-solving questions - Practice problems on core data structures and algorithms and approach them through power patterns. Classifying problems through solution patterns and applying analogous patterns to solve new problems will help you tackle tough problems at the interview.
- Practice questions around programming theory - Practice answers to Python interview questions around general programming theory. Knowledge of the core OOP features in Python, and the use of different functions is extensively tested in technical interviews.
- Practice mock interviews with industry experts -Practicing mock interviews with professionals is a brilliant way to overcome interview anxiety, boost your confidence levels, and strengthen your weak areas. Interview Kickstart allows you to practice mock interviews with expert professionals who are hiring managers at top tech companies. Click here to learn more about how we can help you.
- Think out loud in the interview - This is another tip to help you ace your technical interview. By thinking out loud, you give recruiters a peek into your approach. If your approach is correct, you’re often given the green signal by the hiring manager and are awarded points even if you don’t arrive at the optimal solution.
Employing these tips during your Python interview prep and your interview will help you stand out from the rest of the competition.
Python Interview Questions FAQs
Q1. What type of Python interview questions are asked in FAANG+ interviews?
If you apply for a software engineering role, you can expect Python interview questions around core Python theoretical concepts and problem-solving. Under problem-solving, you can expect questions on core data structures and algorithms.
Q2. Which Python coding concepts are important to answer Python interview questions?
The important coding concepts in Python include modules, packages, control-flow statements, data types, structured and unstructured data, and core OOPs concepts such as polymorphism, inheritance, and encapsulation, among others.
Q3. What concepts are the Python interview questions about algorithms and data structures based on?
Knowledge of coding concepts such as strings, linked lists, arrays, sorting, hash tables, recursion, graphs, trees, and dynamic programming is required for answering Python interview questions on algorithms and data structures.
Q4. Are your Python skills tested in senior software engineer interviews at FAANG+ companies?
Yes, very much. Knowledge of core concepts in Python is important, although there is more focus on distributed systems design in senior software engineer interviews.
Q5. Why is Python a widely used language?
Python is a high-end, general-purpose, interpreted programming language that allows developers to build complex software programs. With the help of the right tools and libraries, Python can be used to build a ton of applications and programs.
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