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How To Nail Your Next Tech Interview

The Evolution of Large Language Models in AI: From Concept to Cutting-Edge Technology
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The Evolution of Large Language Models in AI: From Concept to Cutting-Edge Technology

Did you know that 53.3% of engineers and data scientists are planning to use large language model applications in implementation as soon as possible? Artificial intelligence is constantly evolving with the introduction of new advancements every week or month. The large language models in AI have drastically developed in the last few decades. Natural language processing and neural networks play a pivotal role in the evolution of LLMs. 

Here’s what we’ll cover in this article:

  • What are Large Language Models in AI
  • History of Large Language Models in AI
  • Advancement in Different Fields of LLMs in AI
  • Functioning of Large Language Models in AI
  • Benefits of Large Language Models in AI
  • Speed Up Your Career by Learning About LLMs and AI at Interview Kickstart
  • FAQs on Large Language Models in AI

What are Large Language Models in AI?

The large language models (LLMs) are built based on natural language understanding. In artificial intelligence and deep learning, LLMs are developed to mimic human intelligence and generate text in a human-like manner. LLMs learn to predict and generate text with precision with the help of the knowledge they gain in the training process. The large language models in AI are able to generate the succeeding words or characters due to pattern and structure recognition. 

LLMs can generate textual data as they have learned from large datasets with millions of parameters. In AI model development, language models have simplified natural language processing (NLP) tasks with revolutionary achievements in language-related AI tasks. The tasks can be text generation, translation, prediction, text summarization, Q&A answers, and much more.

Large language models in AI
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History of Large Language Models in AI

Cutting-edge technology made the things that seemed impossible in the past possible. The history of large language models is dependent on NLP and machine learning algorithms’ new advancements in the tech world. The large language models have evolved with the availability of large datasets to train and computers with high computational power. 

The first chatbot using LLM was Eliza, designed in the 1960s by an MIT researcher. It was the beginning of heavy research in NLP and the growth of more advanced LLMs. Let’s look at the history of language models with major components involved in their evolution:

  • Early Beginnings of Neural Networks (1950s-1990s)

The base foundation of natural language processing and neural networks was laid during this decade. Neural networks in AI use neurons, which are interconnected nodes in a layered architecture that is designed to mimic the human brain. The early development of large language models in AI was based on the statistical approach and rule-oriented systems.

Georgetown-IBM embarked on the journey to conduct research in machine translation in the year 1954. The conducted experiment was successful in translating 60 sentences from Russian language to English. However, the progress was slow and complex due to the lack of computing operational resources and the complexity of implementing language processing algorithms.

  • Emergence of Statistical Language Model (2000s)

The n-gram and Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) are statistical models that were prominently used for language processing tasks in the 1990s and 2000s. The n-gram model uses a co-current frequency that predicts and assigns the score to the most probable word that is likely to come after a word in a sequence or sentence. 

The HMM model is a more structured approach that shows the relationship between the observations and hidden states that are dependent on internal factors that are not observed easily.

  • Neural Network Advancements (Early 2000s)

Neural networks started the revolution of large language models in AI with backpropagation and feed-forward neural network algorithms, which can be used to train multi-layered neural networks efficiently. With the introduction of feed-forward neural networks in deep learning, the base of NLP was set. Due to the computational constraints in algorithms, the models were comparatively limited and smaller.

  • Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) and Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM): RNNs are useful in modeling sequential data and hence used for NLP tasks. RNNs faced challenges due to the vanishing gradient problem, but the emergence of LSTM in the late '90s provided aid for this issue with specific memory cells.
  • Word Embeddings in 2013: The concept of word embeddings was introduced by Mikolov et al. through Word2Vec and GloVe models. In a high-dimensional space, words are represented as continuous vectors in these models. This model was more accurate than the previous models, leading to the NLP advancements in large language models in AI.
  • Transformer Models Architecture (2017)

The transformer architecture in deep learning is the core of LLMs. It uses a self-attention mechanism that generates contextually accurate text as they get trained on large statistical datasets over different types of resources, such as articles, books, research papers, etc., containing millions of words.

The transformer model architecture was introduced by Vaswani et al. in the 2017 paper “Attention is all you need.” 

  • Breakthroughs in AI with Self-Attention Mechanism: The transformers used an attention mechanism for efficient text generation tasks in NLP. It was one of the biggest breakthroughs in AI, as the LLMS now use transformers with attention mechanisms instead of RNNs, unlocking the enhanced performance of language models.
  • BERT (Bidirectional Encoder Representation from Transformers) (2018)

BERT, developed by Google and based on an encoder-decoder structure using extra layers on top, enables it to generate task-specific output. Many variants, like ALBERT and RoBERTa, were introduced and influenced by BERT.

  • AI Milestones with GPT Models (2018-Present)

One of the biggest stepping stones for large language models in AI was the introduction of GPT models. OpenAI introduced the GPT series. The GPT series models were the first to implement very large-scale models, starting with GPT-1, which had 117 million parameters, and GPT-2, which had around 1.5 billion parameters. GPT-3, which had 175 billion parameters. They changed the landscape of NLP and were the most revolutionary AI models.

Advancements in Different Fields of Large Language Models in AI

The following sections will help you explore the advancements of LLMs:

  1. Conversational AI

Starting with Eliza, chatting with bots and making them seem like humans has been a blocker for AI scientists. Earlier chatbots used to have pre-feed messages in them were able to answer a limited number of questions, and were confused while facing out-of-context questions. 

Recent improvements in attention and the development of deeper neural network transformer-based models, the introduction of memory-based chatbots, and large language models have started the development of custom conversational bots and the improvement of domain-specific chatbots. From IBM Watson to ChatGPT, which answers almost all the queries given to it by the user, the evolution is phenomenal.

  1. Milestones in Voice-based Assistant

Back when Apple introduced Siri, and Google introduced Google Assistant, those personal assistants were top-notch and had generation-defining features in smartphones. Still, as the technology went ahead, the betterment of those bots faced quite a challenge. In 2023, Google announced that they would be supercharging Google Assistants with their in-house Bard and Palm large language models, which will act as the next stage in the evolution of personal assistants. Amazon also integrated LLMs in Alexa to create more intuitive and natural experiences.

  1. Progress in Multimodal AI

The Deep Boltzmann Machine started the development of multimodal AI. Tackling everything from computer vision, data mining, natural language processing, and speech synthesis was a test for AI researchers. With the revolutions of LLMS models like Dalle 3, now combined with GPT, which is the forefront model for image generation and is capable of image filling and image transformation, Google Bard with extensions can now be used with multiple apps and platforms across the whole Google Workspace ecosystem. 

Claude 2 by Anthropic now has the feature of uploading files and is able to parse multiple types of documents to answer questions or analyze the data present in them. Stability AI developed a revolutionary multimodal AI model that, being a text-to-image model, is very efficient and creates realistic images from the text provided to it.

  1. Future-proofing Domain-Specific LLMs

The data that was available in earlier days was not enough to train very accurate models, and the models were also bottlenecked by hardware with limited capabilities. From tuning to training large models from scratch for the data of a specific domain, from finance to health to sports, they have proven revolutionary in the field and have boosted innovations in the domain. 

Models like BioBERT, which is trained on biomedical literature and is used for biomedical NLP tasks like entity recognition, and SciBERT, which is based on scientific text and is very efficient for science-based questions, are some examples of domain-specific LLMs. Financial advisors use custom AI models to give personal and more nuanced financial guidance to their clients. BloombergGPT is one of the examples of Financial Models.

  1. Ethical AI

Large language models in AI have proven to be game changer in ethical AI. Malware attacks, easy-to-break encryption, and unrestricted use of AI are some unethical actions that can be performed by using models non-morally with the help of LLMs like Google SecPaLM, which was launched in April 2023 and was trained specially to do malware analysis with features like Google VirusTotal Code insight to check if the script is predatory or not. 

Juniper researchers used open AI modes to write malicious code to generate more data to make the threat analysis models more secure and foolproof. Environmental awareness is also being encoded in the models to understand the threat of malware, which is fully autonomous. This awareness in LLMs also proves to be very crucial during the decision-making process and makes any system in which it is implemented more secure.

Functioning of Large Language Models in AI

Large language models are the most intricate and complex pieces of software produced in the history of artificial intelligence and computer science. The first step in training the LLMs is the collection of data. Annotated data by hand, raw data, and a lot of prompts are used to create the training data, and then the data is used to fine-tune the base model with the help of supervised learning. 

After this training is finished and the loss has been minimized, the model is made to give multiple responses to a task and prompt, and then, with reinforcement learning with human feedback (RLHF), a human or automated labeler ranks those responses, which are further used to reward the model for making it converge to provide the best responses possible. 

After this, a reward model is optimized, and the LLM is tested on the new unseen prompts. The reward optimization algorithm, like PPO or some other, is initiated and generates an output. The reward is calculated as the output, and it is further used to update the algorithm to make the model generate the most accurate response.

Benefits of Large Language Models in AI

  1. Boosting Automation: The decrease in redundant tasks and the work being dependent on manual intervention is inevitable as the large language models have made the automation of simple tasks like data entry and basic data analysis easier.
  2. Creative output: Generative AI allows artists, painters, singers, and content creators to be as vivid and dynamic in their creations as they were never before; they can sample and generate new ideas more quickly and efficiently than ever while saving costs, too.
  3. Better Communication: To bridge the gap between humans and AI and to help humans communicate better with humans, large language models are used to translate languages easily, summarize large texts better, and even write letters and messages on your behalf to make the process of connection simpler.
  4. Personalized Experiences: LLMs are trained to work on more custom tasks like parsing through documents or can be used to act as an assistant for the brand or mock a personality to create more tailored responses to create more meaningful experiences.

Speed Up Your Career by Learning About LLMs and AI at Interview Kickstart

The latest advancements in the field of large language models in AI have changed the NLP world forever. One of the most well-known examples is ChatGpt, as almost everyone is familiar with it. The LLMs are widely used for chatbots, translation, Q&A, testing, summarization of contextual data, and much more.

If you are interested in AI and want to learn more about its principles in depth, then the machine learning course at Interview Kickstart is the right place to begin, where you can learn from basic to advanced concepts and land your dream job with refined interview preparations.

Join the FREE-webinar today and gear up your career growth!

FAQs on Large Language Models in AI

Q1. Is ChatGPT a large language model in AI?

ChatGPT is based on natural language processing algorithms and large language models under the class of NLPs known as large language models.

Q2. What are the basics of large language models in AI?

LLMs are based on transformer models, neural networks, and attention and reward optimization algorithms in AI.

Q3. What is the largest LLM in the industry?

OpenAI GPT-4 is said to have 1.7 trillion parameters, which makes it much larger than the Falcon model. which has 180 billion.

Q4. Why do we need LLMs in AI?

We need large language models for the evolution of AI and for the creation of more natural and efficient models.

Q5. What are the limitations of large language models in AI?

Hallucinations, Very long context length, and very long training times are some limitations of LLMs in AI.

Last updated on: 
January 5, 2024
Author

Abhinav Rawat

Product Manager @ Interview Kickstart | Ex-upGrad | BITS Pilani. Working with hiring managers from top companies like Meta, Apple, Google, Amazon etc to build structured interview process BootCamps across domains

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The Evolution of Large Language Models in AI: From Concept to Cutting-Edge Technology

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