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Extend vs. Append in Python: List Operations Explained

In Python, effective list manipulation is vital, and two key techniques, extend and append, play important roles. While both modify data, they differ in their advantages. The append technique adds a single element to the end of a list, while extend concatenates multiple elements from an iterable. 

This article discusses the differences between append and extend, emphasizing their input types, resulting list structures, and practical use cases. Understanding append vs extend in Python differences enhances code reliability as well as impacts performance considerations, enabling Python developers to make informed decisions in list operations.

Here’s what we’ll cover in this article:  

  • append: Adding Elements to the End
  • extend: Concatenating Lists
  • The Difference
  • Use Cases
  • Performance Considerations
  • Get Ready for Your Next Interview
  • FAQs About extend and append

append: Adding Elements to the End

The append technique in Python is a key list operation used to add elements to the add elements to the end of a list. This strategy takes a single argument, normally an element, and attaches it to the current list. Here is a simple example code:

my_list = [1, 2, 3] my_list.append(4) print(my_list) # Output: [1, 2, 3, 4]

In this example, the whole number '4' is added to the end of the list. One characteristic of add is its ability to alter the original list in place, ensuring that the changes persist.

While append is direct and effective for adding individual elements, it's important to consider that by adding multiple elements or concatenating lists, the 'expand' technique might be more suitable. The differentiation between these list operations becomes important while working with large datasets or optimizing code for execution. In list, 'add' stands as a resource for appending a single element to the end of a list, offering simplicity and convenience in Python list manipulation.

extend: Concatenating Lists

In Python, the extend method is important while concatenating lists, allowing developers to efficiently combine the components of one iterable with another. Unlike 'add', which adds a single element, extend can add different elements from an iterable, like another list, to the end of the original list. 

list_a = [1, 2, 3] list_b = [4, 5, 6] list_a.extend(list_b) print(list_a) Output: [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]

In this example, extend takes every element from 'list_b' and attaches it to the end of 'list_a'. This strategy is especially important for concatenating lists efficiently and in a single operation.

Extend modifies the original list, ensuring the changes continue. While managing situations where different elements should be added to a list, using the extend method can result in cleaner, concise code and  better performance as compared to append. Understanding the qualities of ‘extend’ Python developers capabilities in list modification, working with comprehensible code.

The Major Difference

Here are the major differences between append and extend.

Aspect append extend
Input Type Accepts a single element as input. Takes an iterable (e.g., list, tuple, string) as input.
Resulting List Structure Adds a single element at the end of the list. Adds all elements of the iterable to the end of the list.
Modifying Original List Modifies the original list in place. Modifies the original list in place.
Performance Generally faster when adding a single element, making it efficient for straightforward operations More efficient for adding multiple elements at once, reducing the number of operations compared to repeated `append`.

Use Cases

  • append: Ideal when you really want to add a single element to the end of a list, improving on the code and upgrading readability. Normal situations include appending numbers, strings, or individual data points to an existing list.
  • extend: Appropriate for situations where concatenating data or different elements is required. Use it while merging data from different sources, combining multiple datasets, or while managing iterable structures like lists or tuples that should be consistently added to a current list in a single operation.

Performance Considerations

  • append: Generally faster while adding an individual component, making it effective for direct projects. Using repeated append requires individual elements to be less performant than extend in such situations.
  • extend: Suitable for adding multiple components without a moment's delay, decreasing the number of operations as compared to repeated append. It turns out to be especially important while managing larger datasets or while concatenating data, offering further enhanced performance in such cases. Understanding the performance implications helps advance code in based on specific list manipulation requirements.

Get Ready for Your Next Interview

Understanding the differences between append and extend in Python list enables developers to pick the most suitable method for their particular requirements. While append succeeds  in adding individual elements, extend excels while concatenating different elements productively. The choice between them impacts code readability and execution. By understanding their use cases and performance considerations, Python developers can make more efficient and compact code, upgrading their ability to manipulate data in different programming situations. 

Learning about the lists and other aspects of Python is an essential feature for developers. With the collaboration of industry experts, Interview Kickstart has created courses for software developers and aspiring learners to get a deeper understanding of Python and leverage it to build their careers in leading tech giants. Sign up for our webinar today to learn more. 

FAQs About extend and append

Q1. Can I use append to add multiple elements to a list at once?

No, append is designed to add a single element at the end of a list. For multiple elements, consider using extend.

Q2. What happens if I use extend with a non-iterable argument?

If the argument is not iterable, extend will raise a TypeError. Ensure the input is a valid iterable like a list, tuple, or string.

Q3. Which is more efficient, append or extend?

For a single element, append is generally faster. However, for multiple elements, extend can be more efficient as it performs the operation in a single step.

Q4. Can I use append or extend with other data types besides lists?

Yes, both methods can be used with various iterable data types like tuples or strings, not limited to lists.

Q5. Does extend create a new list or modify the existing one?

Both append and extend modify the original list in place, ensuring that the changes persist.

Last updated on: 
February 12, 2024
Author

Abhinav Rawat

Product Manager @ Interview Kickstart | Ex-upGrad | BITS Pilani. Working with hiring managers from top companies like Meta, Apple, Google, Amazon etc to build structured interview process BootCamps across domains

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