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Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs): Beyond Deepfakes

Last updated on: 
December 27, 2023
Abhinav Rawat
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About The Author!
Abhinav Rawat
Abhinav Rawat
Product Manager at Interview Kickstart. The skilled and experienced mastermind behind several successful product designs for upscaling the ed-tech platforms with an outcome-driven approach for skilled individuals.

With the progress of the Internet and social networking sites, there are some drawbacks, too, such as fake news. False information spreads like wildfire. It is fairly challenging for AI to detect false news around the Internet. Generative Adversarial Networks have gained considerable attention in recent times owing to their ability to fill the data gap, encouraging the increased efficient usage of AI. Besides deepfake creation, they hold much more potential in the context of data generation and further data handling. Industries from different domains are leveraging the power of GAN. Explaining the method of applicability along with shedding light on its potential, explore to increase your knowledge of the field of AI. 

Here’s what we’ll cover in the article: 

  • What Are Generative Adversarial Networks?
  • What Are the Models of a Generative Adversarial Network?
  • What Are the Types of Generative Adversarial Networks?
  • What Are the Applications of Generative Adversarial Networks?
  • What Are the Advantages of Generative Adversarial Networks?
  • What Are the Limitations of Generative Adversarial Networks?
  • Acing GAN with Interview Kickstart
  • Frequently Asked Questions on Generative Adversarial Networks

What Are Generative Adversarial Networks?

Let us break down GAN to know the Generative Adversarial Networks meaning. The GAN consists of two Generative Adversarial Network models: a Generator and a Discriminator. The Generator gives the term ‘Generative’ due to the ability to generate new data in a probabilistic model. Discriminator leads to the term ‘Adversarial,’ which is indicative of training in an adversarial setting designed to misguide the model. Moreover, the ‘Network’ is the usage of deep neural networks for training the model. 

What Are the Models of a Generative Adversarial Network?

Defining GAN is a type of AI model used in unsupervised machine learning. The two components of the models stated previously compete with each other to effectively perform analysis of variations. The generator produces synthetic data highly resembling the real data, and the discriminator works to classify the real and generated data. Repeating the action, the aim of the generator, each time, is to create more convincing data. At the same time, the discriminator strives harder, time and again, to become better at distinguishing between real and generated data. Subsequently, the generator becomes capable of generating real mimicking data. 

Workflow of Generative Adversarial Network

What Are the Types of Generative Adversarial Networks?

The multiple types of GAN are: 

Types of Generative Adversarial Networks

Vanilla GAN: It is a simplified type of GAN using multi-layer perceptrons as models, generators and discriminators. It uses stochastic gradient descent to analyze and optimize the loss function. 

Conditional GAN (CGAN): The generator and discriminator are provided with two pieces of information here: the data and class label or model data. Also referred to as condition parameters, they help in generating the specific type of data and discriminator to easily distinguish based on parameters. The CGAN works on condition probability and optimizes the loss function. 

Laplacian Pyramid GAN (LAPGAN): A Laplacian pyramid is designed such that it contains different levels. Here, the set of brand-pass images is located at a distance apart, forming levels. The LAPGAN uses multiple generator and discriminator networks for different levels of the pyramid. It is an efficient type of GAN capable of generating high-quality images. The process covers the down-sampling of images at each pyramid level, followed by up-scaling in backward pass to acquire the noise to make it up to the original size. 

Deep Convolutional GAN (DCGAN): It is the most common and successful GAN. The component multi-layer perceptrons are replaced here with ConvNets. These are implemented without max-pooling, that is, retaining the value from each step. Rather, the mechanism of action here is a convolutional stride, making a large skip over pixels across the data in the absence of fully connected layers. 

Cycle GAN: It offers a platform for image-to-image translations. It means the users can switch the images to a certain form. Let us suppose there are two images; image one is to be translated to the details of image two. It utilizes the mapping function to gain output with minimal loss in predicted and actual output. 

Style GAN: It focuses on improving the work of the generator, where it has to use convolutional layers to improve its efficiency. It allows controlled variation and smooth transition through ‘latent space.’

Super Resolution GAN (SRGAN): Evident by the name, the Super Resolution GAN works to enhance the resolution of the picture in a more detailed form. It utilizes Mean Squared Error to find the best pixel-wise solution. 

What Are the Applications of Generative Adversarial Networks?

The generative adversarial network applications are as follows:

  • Synthesizes and generates pictures
  • Augments data to generate new images from data obtained from training
  • Enhances image resolution
  • Increases efficiency of the classification techniques by discriminator training 
  • Allows application of filter for image transition
  • Detect anomalies through patterns and recognition of deviations
  • Can convert semantics into images 
  • Transfers the style of images and videos 
  • Simulate face aging and de-aging

What Are the Advantages of Generative Adversarial Networks?

The different advantages of Generative Adversarial Networks are: 

Advantages of generative adversarial networks

  • It can make up for the loss or lack of data through synthetic data generation. It is of immense help in fields where industries are dependent on real-life situations and access to data. For instance, medical, law and others. 
  • The results are high-quality, easing the analysis and further interpretation for various purposes. 
  • The lack of the requirement of labeled data makes it more efficient in practical life. It enables the GAN to function for unsupervised learning tasks.  
  • The versatile nature allows multiple deliverables such as text-to-image synthesis, anomaly detection, image-to-image translation, data augmentation and multiple others. 
  • Generates molecular structures, thus encouraging cost-effective research work for medical treatment 

What Are the Limitations of Generative Adversarial Networks?

The GAN is also associated with certain disadvantages and limitations, such as the ones listed below: 

  • The training poses challenges owing to the possibility of model collapse, instability and convergence failure
  • It is dependent on high-cost computers and requires time for training 
  • Large datasets or generating high-resolution images also requires time and money 
  • Difficult to interpret the actions, leading to a lack of transparency and accountability
  • Generated data can be biased or unfair, with no means to identify the same 
  • Traditional metrics are inappropriate for the quality evaluation of generated data. Thus, there is a lack of measures
  • GAN performance is sensitive to hyperparameter choices 
  • GANs also end up with mode dropping, evident by the lack of representation of certain modes 
  • Ethical concerns lie due to the ability to create deep fakes, news and other malicious activities 
  • Latent space in GANs is not yet fully understood 

Acing GAN with Interview Kickstart

Generative Adversarial Network is seen in multiple industries serving the need to generate data. The dire need for professionals to handle the operations in complex computer systems is evident through the requirements of more than 2000 positions worldwide on LinkedIn. Revision of knowledge with the right preparation for the interview is the key to acing any interview. With the lock in your hand, the search for a key is over. Interview Kickstart fulfills all the needs required to help you face the interview. With a curriculum designed by top recruiters from FAANG+ companies, we can identify the right set of personalized requirements and prepare you accordingly. 

Frequently Asked Questions on Generative Adversarial Networks

Q1. What is generative AI in simple terms?

Ans. Generative AI is the type of Artificial Intelligence that can create new content or data. It uses algorithms like Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) or Variational Autoencoders (VAEs) to produce human-mimicking data.

Q2. Is CNN better than GAN?

Ans. They both serve different purposes, and hence their comparison is improper. CNNs, or Convolutional Neural Networks, are associated with image classification, while GAN is associated with content generation. 

Q3. What is neural style transfer?

Ans. It is the technique in computer vision and image processing that uses deep neural networks for the application of the visual style of one image to another. It includes separation and recombination of the content and style of images to generate a new one. 

Q4. What is the opposite of a generative model?

Ans. The opposite of a generative model is a discriminative model. They distinguish between the different classes or categories of data.

Q5. Why is ReLU used in GAN?

Ans. Rectified Linear Unit or ReLU is used as an activation function in GAN. It introduces non-linearity to the model, allowing learning from complex data patterns. 

Q6. Is GPT a type of GAN?

Ans. No, GPT is not a type of GAN. The novel data can be created in two forms, either through GAN or Generative Adversarial Network or via GPT or Generative Pretrained Transformers.

Posted on 
October 7, 2023

Abhinav Rawat

Product Manager @ Interview Kickstart | Ex-upGrad | BITS Pilani. Working with hiring managers from top companies like Meta, Apple, Google, Amazon etc to build structured interview process BootCamps across domains

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