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Oops! Something went wrong while submitting the form.  ## You may be missing out on a 66.5% salary hike* ### Nick Camilleri

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## How many years of coding experience do you have?

Oops! Something went wrong while submitting the form.  ## FREE course on 'Sorting Algorithms' by Omkar Deshpande (Stanford PhD, Head of Curriculum, IK)

Oops! Something went wrong while submitting the form.  # Boggle Solver Problem Statement

You are given a dictionary set `dictionary` that contains `dictionaryCount` distinct words and a matrix `mat` of size `n * m`.\ Your task is to find all possible words that can be formed by a sequence of adjacent characters in the matrix `mat`.\ Note that we can move to any of 8 adjacent characters, but a word should not have multiple instances of the same cell of the matrix.

## Example

``````{
"dictionary": ["bst", "heap", "tree"],
"mat": ["bsh", "tee", "arh"]
}
``````

Output:

``````["bst", "tree"]
``````

The input matrix is represented below:

bsh\ tee\ arh

Assume here top left-most corner is at (0,0) and bottom right-most corner is (2,2).\ Presence of `"bst"` is marked bold in the below representation:\ (0,0) -> (0,1) -> (1,0)

bsh\ tee\ arh

Presence of `"tree"` is marked bold in the below representation:\ (1,0) -> (2,1) -> (1,1) -> (1,2)

bsh\ tee\ arh

## Notes

• Same dictionary word can be found in the matrix multiple times. We only need to check the existence of the dictionary word in the matrix. Hence, for multiple existences for the same word only add it once in the list of all found words.

Constraints:

• 1 <= `dictionaryCount` <= 1000
• 1 <= `n * m` <= 100000
• 1 <= length of words in `dictionary` <= 100
• All the characters in `mat` and in the `dictionary` words are lower case English letters

We have provided two solutions. We will refer to the number of strings in given array `mat` as `n`, the length of a string of given array `mat` as `m`, the maximum length of a dictionary word as `max_length_of_string` and the number of string in given array `dictionary` as `dictionaryCount`.

# Boggle Solver Solution 1: Brute Force

In this approach, we, first of all, insert all the words from the `dictionary` into a hash map for a linear time lookup operation (linear over length of string because it takes linear time to calculate hash of a string). Now, we iterate over all the cells of the matrix `mat` and assume each cell as the first character of the our word and recursively build all the possible words by visiting all its neighbouring cells and each we visit its neighbour we keep building the word by appending the neighbour’s cell char at the end of our current word. Also, each time we build a word we make a lookup in our hash map. If the current state of the word exists in the hash map then we found it in the `mat` and we add it to the found words set. Also, once we found a word we remove it from the HashMap so as to avoid its duplicate match from other words in the `mat`. We repeat this process for all the cells in the matrix `mat` and keep accumulating all the found words in a common container and in the end return this container. Kindly, refer to the solution for a better understanding.

Consider the below example:

`dictionary = [ "bst" , "abs" , "tab" ]`

`mat = [ "ast" , "bxt" ]`

So, our matrix looks like

a s t

b x r

Now for each cell of the matrix we keep generating all the possible words with max length equal to the max length of word in `dictionary`.

So, we start from `mat` and keep generating all the words in the below manner and at each generation we check its existence in the dictionary. The generated words for `mat` are:

`a , as , ast , asx , asr , asb, abx , abs`.

Here we find `"abs"` in our dictionary so, we add it in our found words container and remove it from the dictionary hashmap.

In similar fashion we generate all possible words considering all other cells of `mat` as the first character of the word and then keep checking their existence in our dictionary hash map.

## Time Complexity

O(maxlengthofstring * (n * m) * 7(maxlengthofstring)).

Now, consider a cell `(i, j)` as the first character when we are building our word. Now for first move we can move to 8 directions from current cell say `(i - 1, j), (i + 1, j), (i, j - 1), (i, j + 1), (i - 1, j + 1), (i + 1, j - 1), (i + 1, j + 1), (i - 1, j - 1)`. Now for next moves we only have 7 directions as one direction of the 8 possible direction will be the previous visited cell. So, from this point on we will be having 7 possible directions to visit for the current cell. So, we can now come-up with a upper bound that to form all possible `max_length_of_string` length words assuming cell `(i, j)` is the first character it will take O(8 * 7(maxlengthofstring - 1)) ~ O(7(maxlengthofstring)) time. Therefore, we perform the same operation for all the `m * n` cells in the matrix mat. Now for words that we form from our boggle matrix we do a lookup in our hashmap to check if the current word exists in the dictionary. This lookup takes O(maxlengthofstring) time. Hence, the total time complexity will be O(maxlengthofstring * m * n * 7(maxlengthof_string)).

## Auxiliary Space Used

O(dictionaryCount * maxlengthof_string + n * m).

Hash Map consumes O(dictionaryCount * maxlengthof_string) space same as the input dictionary. While word building traversals we will be also maintaining a 2D visited matrix that tracks the visited cells so as we do not visit it again. This 2D visited matrix also consumes O(n * m) space. Recursion stack as we calling the function recursively for any given index `(i, j)` it can be O(n * m).

Hence total auxiliary space used will be O(dictionaryCount * maxlengthof_string + n * m).

## Space Complexity

O(dictionaryCount * maxlengthof_string + n * m).

For storing input, we are storing `dictionaryCount` number of string of maximum possible length `max_length_of_string` and `n` strings of length `m` each and as auxiliary space used is O(dictionaryCount * maxlengthofstring) + O(n * m). Hence total complexity will be O(dictionaryCount * maxlengthofstring + n * m).

## Code For Boggle Solver Solution 1: Brute Force

``````/*
* Asymptotic complexity in terms of the number of strings in given array \`mat\` \`n\`, the length of a string of given array \`mat\` \`m\`,
the maximum length of the dictionary word \`max_length_of_string\` and the number of string in given array \`dictionary\` \`dictionaryCount\`:
* Time: O(max_length_of_string * (n * m) * 7^(max_length_of_string)).
* Auxiliary space: O(dictionaryCount * max_length_of_string + n * m).
* Total space: O(dictionaryCount * max_length_of_string + n * m).
*/

// validates cell (x,y) of mat
bool ok(int x, int y, vector<string> &mat) {
// mat dimensions
int n = mat.size();
int m = mat.size();
// boundary conditions check
if (x < 0 or y < 0 or x >= n or y >= m) {
return false;
}
return true;
}

void solveforPosition(int length, int maxLength, int x, int y, vector<string> &mat,
vector<vector<int>> &vis, unordered_set<string> &dict, vector<string> &result, string &s) {
// if length of current formed word is greater than max length
// of dictionary word - we break our recursion
if (length > maxLength) {
return;
}
// marked current position as visited
vis[x][y] = 1;
// build current word s by appending current cell
s.push_back(mat[x][y]);
// if current word exists in dictionary
if (dict.find(s) != dict.end()) {
// push current word in the result array
result.push_back(s);
// remove the current word from dictionary
dict.erase(s);
}
// iterate on all 8 directions
for (int i = -1; i <= 1; i++) {
for (int j = -1; j <= 1; j++) {
if (i == 0 and j == 0) {
continue;
}
// if cell (x+i,y+j) is valid and not visited
if (ok(x + i, y + j, mat) and !vis[x + i][y + j]) {
// recursively keep building current word
solveforPosition(length + 1, maxLength, x + i, y + j, mat, vis, dict, result, s);
}
}
}
// remove current char from the current word built so for
s.pop_back();
// mark current cell as non-visited
vis[x][y] = 0;
}

// @param : dictionary : set of words to be looked in mat
// @param : mat : input matrix
// @return : list of all words found in mat
vector<string> boggle_solver(vector<string> &dictionary, vector<string> &mat) {
// insert all words from dictionary into hash set dict
unordered_set<string> dict(dictionary.begin(), dictionary.end());

// getting maximum length word in dictionary
int maxWordLength = 0;
for (auto word : dictionary) {
maxWordLength = max(maxWordLength, (int)word.length());
}

// stores all words found in mat
vector<string> ret;
// mat dimensions
int rows = mat.size();
int cols = mat.size();
// tracks visited cells of mat
vector<vector<int>> visited(rows, vector<int>(cols, 0));
// iterate over all cells of mat
for (int i = 0; i < rows; i++) {
for (int j = 0; j < cols; j++) {
vector<string> result;
string tmp = "";
// build word for current position and match with dict
solveforPosition(1, maxWordLength, i, j, mat, visited, dict, result, tmp);
// add all found words for this cell to overall result ret
ret.insert(end(ret), begin(result), end(result));
}
}
// return all words found in mat
return ret;
}
``````

# Boggle Solver Solution 2: Optimal

In our previous brute force approach we went building our word string cluelessly and each time we build our string any further we made a lookup in our hash map to check its existence.

In this approach instead of going blindly in all eight directions from our current cell, we will only visit that neighbour that assures that the word with the current prefix exists in the dictionary. Using this we will prune a lot of branches in our word building traversal.

Now a few questions/thoughts:

1. Which DS to choose to store dictionary words so as it not only gives fast lookups but also suggests the next character to look in the matrix for a given prefix word?
• We will be choosing Trie as our DS to store all the words from the dictionary. Trie offers same lookup time as that of a Hash Map(linear time to calculate hash key) and also suggests the next character for a prefix so as the word formed using that char exists in the trie. This feature of the trie is used in autocomplete feature and is widely used in search engines to auto-complete your search queries.
2. Which traversal algorithm to choose for building word(DFS/BFS)?
• The optimal solution for this problem also demands the right choice for the traversal algorithm. In case we use a BFS traversal we will be building valid words but we will be growing our search branches horizontally which leads to delay in the pruning of branches and hence will increase our search space and will affect the time complexity. Whereas in case of DFS we go till depth and we are sure that for every depth we step in we are on right child as guided by the trie data structure and hence, we will reach our goal word quickly.
• Now we will use the same approach as used in the brute force solution. We will iterate over all cells of the matrix mat and for each cell we will do a DFS traversal on the matrix assuming that cell as the first character of the word but this time we will be using our trie to guide so as we only land on valid neighbours and increase the chance of finding the dictionary word.
3. Bonus Optimization Catch
• Every time we find a word we simply remove it from the trie. This will ensure that the trie does not give a suggestion of the words that are already found in some previous traversals and hence it will prune some more DFS branches for us.

Consider the below example:

`dictionary = [ "bst" , "abs" , "tab" ]`

`mat = [ "ast" , "bxt" ]`

So, our matrix looks like

a s t

b x r

Now we iterate on all cells of the above matrix and consider the character as the first character of the word and start building our target word. Here unlike the brute force we won’t build all the possible arrangements of words but will only build those words which are prefix to any of the dictionary word.

So, here we start from `mat`

1. First iteration `word = "a"` (prefix of `"abs"`), now we check if it is in dictionary.
2. Second iteration , we visit all neighbours and only append that neighbour characters in our word that trie permits(so the new word formed is still a prefix of words in dictionary) `word = "ab`" (prefix of `"abs"`), now we check if it is in dictionary.
3. Third iteration , again we repeat the same process `word = "abs"` (prefix of `"abs"`), this exists in the dictionary and hence, we add this in our found words container and remove the same word from the trie.

We repeat the same process for all other cells of the matrix.

## Time Complexity

O(n * m * 7(maxlengthofstring) + dictionaryCount * maxlengthofstring).

As we are storing each string of array `dictionary` into trie, it will take O(dictionaryCount * maxlengthofstring) as to store a string in trie it will take O(maxlengthofstring).

The time complexity of the DFS word building step for this approach will also be the same as the brute force approach for worst case(kindly refer to the brute force time complexity section). As we are still doing the same DFS traversal as in the brute force approach but with some intelligent choices while choosing the direction from the current cell, so as we form the target word more quickly. But for worst case we will end up forming all possible words even after the guiding given by the trie.

Consider below example:

When our 2D matrix is of size 5 * 10 and looks like below:

`mat` = [

"aaaaaaaaaa",

"aaaaaaaaaa",

"aaaaaaaaaa",

"aaaaaaxxxx",

"aaaaaaxbcd"

]

And now consider our dictionary as `dictionary = ["aaaaaaaaab", "aaaaaaaaac", "aaaaaaaaad"]`.

As it is evident that the letter `'b'`, `'c'` and `'d'` and being shielded by the cover of `'x'` layer.

Hence and unfortunately total time complexity still will be O(n * m * 7(maxlengthofstring)) + O(dictionaryCount * maxlengthofstring), but this is only in worst case. In average and ideal cases this approach performs much better.

## Auxiliary Space Used

O(n * m + dictionaryCount * maxlengthof_string).

Trie consumes O(dictionaryCount * maxlengthofstring) space to store `dictionaryCount` of strings in worst case. While word building traversals we will be also maintaining a 2D visited matrix that tracks the visited cells so as we don’t visit it again. This 2D visited matrix also consumes O(n * m) space and the recursive stack would take O(maxlengthofstring) space. So, overall auxiliary space is O(n * m) + O(dictionaryCount * maxlengthof_string).

## Space Complexity

O(n * m + dictionaryCount * maxlengthof_string).

For storing input, we are storing `dictionaryCount` number of string of maximum possible length `max_length_of_string` and `n` strings of length `m` each and as auxiliary space used is O(n * m) + O(dictionaryCount * maxlengthofstring) hence total complexity will be O(dictionaryCount * maxlengthofstring) + O(n * m).

## Code For Boggle Solver Solution 2: Optimal

``````/*
* Asymptotic complexity in terms of the number of strings in given array \`mat\` \`n\`, the length of a string of given array \`mat\` \`m\`,
the maximum length of the dictionary word \`max_length_of_string\` and the number of string in given array \`dictionary\` \`dictionaryCount\`:
* Time: O(n * m * 7^(max_length_of_string) + dictionaryCount * max_length_of_string).
* Auxiliary space: O(dictionaryCount * max_length_of_string + n * m).
* Total space: O(dictionaryCount * max_length_of_string + n * m).
*/

struct TrieNode {
// stores presence of current node in trie
int cnt;
// marks true if current node is end of word in trie
bool isEnd;
// stores references to all its children
TrieNode *child;
// paramtrized constructor
TrieNode() : cnt(1), isEnd(false) {
for (int i = 0; i < 26; i++) {
child[i] = NULL;
}
}
};

// inserts key "k" in the trie
void insert(TrieNode *root, string &k) {
TrieNode *tmp = root;
int l = k.length();
for (int i = 0; i < l; i++) {
int idx = k[i] - 'a';
if (!tmp->child[idx]) {
tmp->child[idx] = new TrieNode();
}
else {
tmp->child[idx]->cnt++;
}
tmp = tmp->child[idx];
}
tmp->isEnd = true;
}

// removes key "s" from the trie
void removeKey(string &s, TrieNode *root) {
int l = s.length();
TrieNode *curr = root;
for (int i = 0; i < l; i++) {
int idx = s[i] - 'a';
if (!curr->child[idx]) {
break;
}
TrieNode *tmp = curr->child[idx];
tmp->cnt--;
if (tmp->cnt == 0) {
curr->child[idx] = NULL;
}
curr = tmp;
}
}

bool ok(int x, int y, vector<string> &mat, TrieNode *rt) {
// mat dimension
int n = mat.size();
int m = mat.size();
// basic boundary checks
if (x < 0 or y < 0 or x >= n or y >= m) {
return false;
}
// basic sanity check
if (rt == NULL) {
return false;
}
// checking if mat[x][y] exists as child for rt
if (rt->child[mat[x][y] - 'a'] == NULL) {
return false;
}
return true;
}

void dfs(int x, int y, vector<string> &mat, vector<vector<int>> &vis, TrieNode *root,
TrieNode *rt, vector<string> &result, string &res) {
// check if rt node is end of any word in trie
if (rt and rt->isEnd == true) {
// unmark the end node
rt->isEnd = false;
// push the current word in the result array
result.push_back(res);
// remove the current word from the trie
removeKey(res, root);
}

// mark current node as visited
vis[x][y] = 1;

// iterate in all 8 - directions from current cell
for (int i = -1; i <= 1; i++) {
for (int j = -1; j <= 1; j++) {
if (i == 0 and j == 0) {
continue;
}
// if this cell(x+i,y+j) is valid and not visited
if (ok(x + i, y + j, mat, rt) and !vis[x + i][y + j]) {
int idx = mat[x + i][y + j] - 'a';
// building the word further
res.push_back(mat[x + i][y + j]);
// extend dfs traversal to cell(x+i,y+j)
dfs(x + i, y + j, mat, vis, root, rt->child[idx], result, res);
// pop current char from the end of current word
res.pop_back();
}
}
}
// mark current cell as non - visited
vis[x][y] = 0;
}

// @param : dictionary : set of words to be looked in mat
// @param : mat : input matrix
// @return : list of all words found in mat
vector<string> boggle_solver(vector<string> &dictionary, vector<string> &mat) {
// create a trie
TrieNode *root = new TrieNode();
// insert all words from dict in trie
for (auto word : dictionary) {
insert(root, word);
}
// mat dimensions
int n = mat.size();
int m = mat.size();
// visited 2d array to mark visited cells of mat
vector<vector<int>> vis(n, vector<int>(m, 0));
// stores all dictionary words found in mat
vector<string> allFoundWords;

// iterate over all cells of mat
for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) {
for (int j = 0; j < m; j++) {
// calculate the child to be looked in root trie node
int idx = mat[i][j] - 'a';

// check if the respective child node is present in trie
if (root->child[idx]) {
// stores words found with first char as mat[i][j]
vector<string> foundWords;
string word = "";
// initializing word's first char
word.push_back(mat[i][j]);
// do a dfs traversal at location (i,j)
dfs(i, j, mat, vis, root, root->child[idx], foundWords, word);
// insert all words found in current dfs to overall result
allFoundWords.insert(end(allFoundWords), begin(foundWords), end(foundWords));
}
}
}
// return the overall list of all found words
return allFoundWords;
}

``````

We hope that these solutions to word search ii problem have helped you level up your coding skills. You can expect problems like these at top tech companies like Amazon and Google.

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### Try yourself in the Editor

Note: Input and Output will already be taken care of.

# Boggle Solver Problem Statement

You are given a dictionary set `dictionary` that contains `dictionaryCount` distinct words and a matrix `mat` of size `n * m`.\ Your task is to find all possible words that can be formed by a sequence of adjacent characters in the matrix `mat`.\ Note that we can move to any of 8 adjacent characters, but a word should not have multiple instances of the same cell of the matrix.

## Example

``````{
"dictionary": ["bst", "heap", "tree"],
"mat": ["bsh", "tee", "arh"]
}
``````

Output:

``````["bst", "tree"]
``````

The input matrix is represented below:

bsh\ tee\ arh

Assume here top left-most corner is at (0,0) and bottom right-most corner is (2,2).\ Presence of `"bst"` is marked bold in the below representation:\ (0,0) -> (0,1) -> (1,0)

bsh\ tee\ arh

Presence of `"tree"` is marked bold in the below representation:\ (1,0) -> (2,1) -> (1,1) -> (1,2)

bsh\ tee\ arh

## Notes

• Same dictionary word can be found in the matrix multiple times. We only need to check the existence of the dictionary word in the matrix. Hence, for multiple existences for the same word only add it once in the list of all found words.

Constraints:

• 1 <= `dictionaryCount` <= 1000
• 1 <= `n * m` <= 100000
• 1 <= length of words in `dictionary` <= 100
• All the characters in `mat` and in the `dictionary` words are lower case English letters

We have provided two solutions. We will refer to the number of strings in given array `mat` as `n`, the length of a string of given array `mat` as `m`, the maximum length of a dictionary word as `max_length_of_string` and the number of string in given array `dictionary` as `dictionaryCount`.

# Boggle Solver Solution 1: Brute Force

In this approach, we, first of all, insert all the words from the `dictionary` into a hash map for a linear time lookup operation (linear over length of string because it takes linear time to calculate hash of a string). Now, we iterate over all the cells of the matrix `mat` and assume each cell as the first character of the our word and recursively build all the possible words by visiting all its neighbouring cells and each we visit its neighbour we keep building the word by appending the neighbour’s cell char at the end of our current word. Also, each time we build a word we make a lookup in our hash map. If the current state of the word exists in the hash map then we found it in the `mat` and we add it to the found words set. Also, once we found a word we remove it from the HashMap so as to avoid its duplicate match from other words in the `mat`. We repeat this process for all the cells in the matrix `mat` and keep accumulating all the found words in a common container and in the end return this container. Kindly, refer to the solution for a better understanding.

Consider the below example:

`dictionary = [ "bst" , "abs" , "tab" ]`

`mat = [ "ast" , "bxt" ]`

So, our matrix looks like

a s t

b x r

Now for each cell of the matrix we keep generating all the possible words with max length equal to the max length of word in `dictionary`.

So, we start from `mat` and keep generating all the words in the below manner and at each generation we check its existence in the dictionary. The generated words for `mat` are:

`a , as , ast , asx , asr , asb, abx , abs`.

Here we find `"abs"` in our dictionary so, we add it in our found words container and remove it from the dictionary hashmap.

In similar fashion we generate all possible words considering all other cells of `mat` as the first character of the word and then keep checking their existence in our dictionary hash map.

## Time Complexity

O(maxlengthofstring * (n * m) * 7(maxlengthofstring)).

Now, consider a cell `(i, j)` as the first character when we are building our word. Now for first move we can move to 8 directions from current cell say `(i - 1, j), (i + 1, j), (i, j - 1), (i, j + 1), (i - 1, j + 1), (i + 1, j - 1), (i + 1, j + 1), (i - 1, j - 1)`. Now for next moves we only have 7 directions as one direction of the 8 possible direction will be the previous visited cell. So, from this point on we will be having 7 possible directions to visit for the current cell. So, we can now come-up with a upper bound that to form all possible `max_length_of_string` length words assuming cell `(i, j)` is the first character it will take O(8 * 7(maxlengthofstring - 1)) ~ O(7(maxlengthofstring)) time. Therefore, we perform the same operation for all the `m * n` cells in the matrix mat. Now for words that we form from our boggle matrix we do a lookup in our hashmap to check if the current word exists in the dictionary. This lookup takes O(maxlengthofstring) time. Hence, the total time complexity will be O(maxlengthofstring * m * n * 7(maxlengthof_string)).

## Auxiliary Space Used

O(dictionaryCount * maxlengthof_string + n * m).

Hash Map consumes O(dictionaryCount * maxlengthof_string) space same as the input dictionary. While word building traversals we will be also maintaining a 2D visited matrix that tracks the visited cells so as we do not visit it again. This 2D visited matrix also consumes O(n * m) space. Recursion stack as we calling the function recursively for any given index `(i, j)` it can be O(n * m).

Hence total auxiliary space used will be O(dictionaryCount * maxlengthof_string + n * m).

## Space Complexity

O(dictionaryCount * maxlengthof_string + n * m).

For storing input, we are storing `dictionaryCount` number of string of maximum possible length `max_length_of_string` and `n` strings of length `m` each and as auxiliary space used is O(dictionaryCount * maxlengthofstring) + O(n * m). Hence total complexity will be O(dictionaryCount * maxlengthofstring + n * m).

## Code For Boggle Solver Solution 1: Brute Force

``````/*
* Asymptotic complexity in terms of the number of strings in given array \`mat\` \`n\`, the length of a string of given array \`mat\` \`m\`,
the maximum length of the dictionary word \`max_length_of_string\` and the number of string in given array \`dictionary\` \`dictionaryCount\`:
* Time: O(max_length_of_string * (n * m) * 7^(max_length_of_string)).
* Auxiliary space: O(dictionaryCount * max_length_of_string + n * m).
* Total space: O(dictionaryCount * max_length_of_string + n * m).
*/

// validates cell (x,y) of mat
bool ok(int x, int y, vector<string> &mat) {
// mat dimensions
int n = mat.size();
int m = mat.size();
// boundary conditions check
if (x < 0 or y < 0 or x >= n or y >= m) {
return false;
}
return true;
}

void solveforPosition(int length, int maxLength, int x, int y, vector<string> &mat,
vector<vector<int>> &vis, unordered_set<string> &dict, vector<string> &result, string &s) {
// if length of current formed word is greater than max length
// of dictionary word - we break our recursion
if (length > maxLength) {
return;
}
// marked current position as visited
vis[x][y] = 1;
// build current word s by appending current cell
s.push_back(mat[x][y]);
// if current word exists in dictionary
if (dict.find(s) != dict.end()) {
// push current word in the result array
result.push_back(s);
// remove the current word from dictionary
dict.erase(s);
}
// iterate on all 8 directions
for (int i = -1; i <= 1; i++) {
for (int j = -1; j <= 1; j++) {
if (i == 0 and j == 0) {
continue;
}
// if cell (x+i,y+j) is valid and not visited
if (ok(x + i, y + j, mat) and !vis[x + i][y + j]) {
// recursively keep building current word
solveforPosition(length + 1, maxLength, x + i, y + j, mat, vis, dict, result, s);
}
}
}
// remove current char from the current word built so for
s.pop_back();
// mark current cell as non-visited
vis[x][y] = 0;
}

// @param : dictionary : set of words to be looked in mat
// @param : mat : input matrix
// @return : list of all words found in mat
vector<string> boggle_solver(vector<string> &dictionary, vector<string> &mat) {
// insert all words from dictionary into hash set dict
unordered_set<string> dict(dictionary.begin(), dictionary.end());

// getting maximum length word in dictionary
int maxWordLength = 0;
for (auto word : dictionary) {
maxWordLength = max(maxWordLength, (int)word.length());
}

// stores all words found in mat
vector<string> ret;
// mat dimensions
int rows = mat.size();
int cols = mat.size();
// tracks visited cells of mat
vector<vector<int>> visited(rows, vector<int>(cols, 0));
// iterate over all cells of mat
for (int i = 0; i < rows; i++) {
for (int j = 0; j < cols; j++) {
vector<string> result;
string tmp = "";
// build word for current position and match with dict
solveforPosition(1, maxWordLength, i, j, mat, visited, dict, result, tmp);
// add all found words for this cell to overall result ret
ret.insert(end(ret), begin(result), end(result));
}
}
// return all words found in mat
return ret;
}
``````

# Boggle Solver Solution 2: Optimal

In our previous brute force approach we went building our word string cluelessly and each time we build our string any further we made a lookup in our hash map to check its existence.

In this approach instead of going blindly in all eight directions from our current cell, we will only visit that neighbour that assures that the word with the current prefix exists in the dictionary. Using this we will prune a lot of branches in our word building traversal.

Now a few questions/thoughts:

1. Which DS to choose to store dictionary words so as it not only gives fast lookups but also suggests the next character to look in the matrix for a given prefix word?
• We will be choosing Trie as our DS to store all the words from the dictionary. Trie offers same lookup time as that of a Hash Map(linear time to calculate hash key) and also suggests the next character for a prefix so as the word formed using that char exists in the trie. This feature of the trie is used in autocomplete feature and is widely used in search engines to auto-complete your search queries.
2. Which traversal algorithm to choose for building word(DFS/BFS)?
• The optimal solution for this problem also demands the right choice for the traversal algorithm. In case we use a BFS traversal we will be building valid words but we will be growing our search branches horizontally which leads to delay in the pruning of branches and hence will increase our search space and will affect the time complexity. Whereas in case of DFS we go till depth and we are sure that for every depth we step in we are on right child as guided by the trie data structure and hence, we will reach our goal word quickly.
• Now we will use the same approach as used in the brute force solution. We will iterate over all cells of the matrix mat and for each cell we will do a DFS traversal on the matrix assuming that cell as the first character of the word but this time we will be using our trie to guide so as we only land on valid neighbours and increase the chance of finding the dictionary word.
3. Bonus Optimization Catch
• Every time we find a word we simply remove it from the trie. This will ensure that the trie does not give a suggestion of the words that are already found in some previous traversals and hence it will prune some more DFS branches for us.

Consider the below example:

`dictionary = [ "bst" , "abs" , "tab" ]`

`mat = [ "ast" , "bxt" ]`

So, our matrix looks like

a s t

b x r

Now we iterate on all cells of the above matrix and consider the character as the first character of the word and start building our target word. Here unlike the brute force we won’t build all the possible arrangements of words but will only build those words which are prefix to any of the dictionary word.

So, here we start from `mat`

1. First iteration `word = "a"` (prefix of `"abs"`), now we check if it is in dictionary.
2. Second iteration , we visit all neighbours and only append that neighbour characters in our word that trie permits(so the new word formed is still a prefix of words in dictionary) `word = "ab`" (prefix of `"abs"`), now we check if it is in dictionary.
3. Third iteration , again we repeat the same process `word = "abs"` (prefix of `"abs"`), this exists in the dictionary and hence, we add this in our found words container and remove the same word from the trie.

We repeat the same process for all other cells of the matrix.

## Time Complexity

O(n * m * 7(maxlengthofstring) + dictionaryCount * maxlengthofstring).

As we are storing each string of array `dictionary` into trie, it will take O(dictionaryCount * maxlengthofstring) as to store a string in trie it will take O(maxlengthofstring).

The time complexity of the DFS word building step for this approach will also be the same as the brute force approach for worst case(kindly refer to the brute force time complexity section). As we are still doing the same DFS traversal as in the brute force approach but with some intelligent choices while choosing the direction from the current cell, so as we form the target word more quickly. But for worst case we will end up forming all possible words even after the guiding given by the trie.

Consider below example:

When our 2D matrix is of size 5 * 10 and looks like below:

`mat` = [

"aaaaaaaaaa",

"aaaaaaaaaa",

"aaaaaaaaaa",

"aaaaaaxxxx",

"aaaaaaxbcd"

]

And now consider our dictionary as `dictionary = ["aaaaaaaaab", "aaaaaaaaac", "aaaaaaaaad"]`.

As it is evident that the letter `'b'`, `'c'` and `'d'` and being shielded by the cover of `'x'` layer.

Hence and unfortunately total time complexity still will be O(n * m * 7(maxlengthofstring)) + O(dictionaryCount * maxlengthofstring), but this is only in worst case. In average and ideal cases this approach performs much better.

## Auxiliary Space Used

O(n * m + dictionaryCount * maxlengthof_string).

Trie consumes O(dictionaryCount * maxlengthofstring) space to store `dictionaryCount` of strings in worst case. While word building traversals we will be also maintaining a 2D visited matrix that tracks the visited cells so as we don’t visit it again. This 2D visited matrix also consumes O(n * m) space and the recursive stack would take O(maxlengthofstring) space. So, overall auxiliary space is O(n * m) + O(dictionaryCount * maxlengthof_string).

## Space Complexity

O(n * m + dictionaryCount * maxlengthof_string).

For storing input, we are storing `dictionaryCount` number of string of maximum possible length `max_length_of_string` and `n` strings of length `m` each and as auxiliary space used is O(n * m) + O(dictionaryCount * maxlengthofstring) hence total complexity will be O(dictionaryCount * maxlengthofstring) + O(n * m).

## Code For Boggle Solver Solution 2: Optimal

``````/*
* Asymptotic complexity in terms of the number of strings in given array \`mat\` \`n\`, the length of a string of given array \`mat\` \`m\`,
the maximum length of the dictionary word \`max_length_of_string\` and the number of string in given array \`dictionary\` \`dictionaryCount\`:
* Time: O(n * m * 7^(max_length_of_string) + dictionaryCount * max_length_of_string).
* Auxiliary space: O(dictionaryCount * max_length_of_string + n * m).
* Total space: O(dictionaryCount * max_length_of_string + n * m).
*/

struct TrieNode {
// stores presence of current node in trie
int cnt;
// marks true if current node is end of word in trie
bool isEnd;
// stores references to all its children
TrieNode *child;
// paramtrized constructor
TrieNode() : cnt(1), isEnd(false) {
for (int i = 0; i < 26; i++) {
child[i] = NULL;
}
}
};

// inserts key "k" in the trie
void insert(TrieNode *root, string &k) {
TrieNode *tmp = root;
int l = k.length();
for (int i = 0; i < l; i++) {
int idx = k[i] - 'a';
if (!tmp->child[idx]) {
tmp->child[idx] = new TrieNode();
}
else {
tmp->child[idx]->cnt++;
}
tmp = tmp->child[idx];
}
tmp->isEnd = true;
}

// removes key "s" from the trie
void removeKey(string &s, TrieNode *root) {
int l = s.length();
TrieNode *curr = root;
for (int i = 0; i < l; i++) {
int idx = s[i] - 'a';
if (!curr->child[idx]) {
break;
}
TrieNode *tmp = curr->child[idx];
tmp->cnt--;
if (tmp->cnt == 0) {
curr->child[idx] = NULL;
}
curr = tmp;
}
}

bool ok(int x, int y, vector<string> &mat, TrieNode *rt) {
// mat dimension
int n = mat.size();
int m = mat.size();
// basic boundary checks
if (x < 0 or y < 0 or x >= n or y >= m) {
return false;
}
// basic sanity check
if (rt == NULL) {
return false;
}
// checking if mat[x][y] exists as child for rt
if (rt->child[mat[x][y] - 'a'] == NULL) {
return false;
}
return true;
}

void dfs(int x, int y, vector<string> &mat, vector<vector<int>> &vis, TrieNode *root,
TrieNode *rt, vector<string> &result, string &res) {
// check if rt node is end of any word in trie
if (rt and rt->isEnd == true) {
// unmark the end node
rt->isEnd = false;
// push the current word in the result array
result.push_back(res);
// remove the current word from the trie
removeKey(res, root);
}

// mark current node as visited
vis[x][y] = 1;

// iterate in all 8 - directions from current cell
for (int i = -1; i <= 1; i++) {
for (int j = -1; j <= 1; j++) {
if (i == 0 and j == 0) {
continue;
}
// if this cell(x+i,y+j) is valid and not visited
if (ok(x + i, y + j, mat, rt) and !vis[x + i][y + j]) {
int idx = mat[x + i][y + j] - 'a';
// building the word further
res.push_back(mat[x + i][y + j]);
// extend dfs traversal to cell(x+i,y+j)
dfs(x + i, y + j, mat, vis, root, rt->child[idx], result, res);
// pop current char from the end of current word
res.pop_back();
}
}
}
// mark current cell as non - visited
vis[x][y] = 0;
}

// @param : dictionary : set of words to be looked in mat
// @param : mat : input matrix
// @return : list of all words found in mat
vector<string> boggle_solver(vector<string> &dictionary, vector<string> &mat) {
// create a trie
TrieNode *root = new TrieNode();
// insert all words from dict in trie
for (auto word : dictionary) {
insert(root, word);
}
// mat dimensions
int n = mat.size();
int m = mat.size();
// visited 2d array to mark visited cells of mat
vector<vector<int>> vis(n, vector<int>(m, 0));
// stores all dictionary words found in mat
vector<string> allFoundWords;

// iterate over all cells of mat
for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) {
for (int j = 0; j < m; j++) {
// calculate the child to be looked in root trie node
int idx = mat[i][j] - 'a';

// check if the respective child node is present in trie
if (root->child[idx]) {
// stores words found with first char as mat[i][j]
vector<string> foundWords;
string word = "";
// initializing word's first char
word.push_back(mat[i][j]);
// do a dfs traversal at location (i,j)
dfs(i, j, mat, vis, root, root->child[idx], foundWords, word);
// insert all words found in current dfs to overall result
allFoundWords.insert(end(allFoundWords), begin(foundWords), end(foundWords));
}
}
}
// return the overall list of all found words
return allFoundWords;
}

``````

We hope that these solutions to word search ii problem have helped you level up your coding skills. You can expect problems like these at top tech companies like Amazon and Google.

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